Quantum computing is the process of using specialized hardware and **quantum physics** to carry out calculations. It is a rapidly developing technology that uses **quantum mechanics**‘ rules to address issues that are too complicated for **conventional computers**.

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## Quantum Computing

The study of quantum computing is concerned with the development of computer-based technologies based on quantum theory ideas. Quantum theory explains the nature and behaviour of matter and energy at the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level. Quantum computing employs a combination of bits to perform specific computational operations.

All of them perform significantly better than their classical equivalents. With enormous performance improvements for particular use cases, the development of quantum computers represents a significant advance in computing capabilities.

### Quantum Computing Important Terms

We must first define a few crucial concepts before we can properly define quantum computing.

**Quantum**- A system that computes outputs using quantum mechanics is referred to as “quantum computing.” In physics, a quantum is the smallest discrete unit of any physical attribute. The majority of the time, it refers to atomic or subatomic particles such as electrons, neutrinos, and photons.

**Qubit**- A qubit is the fundamental unit of information in quantum computing. Qubits behave completely differently than bits in classical computing, despite the fact that they function similarly. Traditional bits, unlike qubits, which can store a superposition of all possible states, are binary and can only hold a position of 0 or 1.

**Quantum Computing**- A area of quantum information science is quantum computing. It outlines the most effective method for handling a challenging calculation. Superposition and entanglement, which are used to carry out quantum computations, are the foundations of quantum mechanics.

**Superposition**- In superposition, quantum particles combine all possible states. Until they are watched and measured, they change. Imagine a coin to help you visualise the distinction between binary position and superposition. By “flipping the coin” and determining whether it comes up heads or tails, traditional bits are measured. The coin would be in superposition, though, if you were able to gaze at it and simultaneously see both heads and tails as well as any other state in between.

**Entanglement**- Quantum particles can correlate their measurement results with one another thanks to entanglement. Qubits form a single system and interact when they are entangled. One qubit’s measurements can be used to infer information about the others. Quantum computers can calculate exponentially more information and tackle more challenging problems by introducing and entangling additional qubits into a system.

### How does quantum computing work?

Three main components comprise a quantum computer:

- a location where the qubits are kept
- a procedure for sending signals to the qubits
- Using a traditional computer to execute a programme and communicate commands

In order to maximize the coherence and minimize interference of the qubits, certain qubit storage techniques maintain the unit housing the qubits at a temperature just above absolute zero. Other qubit housing designs employ a vacuum chamber to lessen vibrations and keep the qubits stable.

Microwaves, lasers, and voltage are just a few of the different ways in which signals can be transmitted to the qubits.

### Quantum Computing History

- Richard Feynman suggests exploiting quantum phenomena for computation in 1959.
- Feynman suggested the development of a quantum computer in 1981. Nature isn’t classical, so if you’re going to simulate it, you better make it a quantum mechanical simulation.
- An multinational team of six scientists demonstrated the feasibility of perfect quantum teleportation in 1993.
- In comparison to the most well-known classical technique, a quantum computer can factor huge numbers exponentially more quicker thanks to a quantum algorithm that Peter Shor discovered in 1994. Many of the public-key cryptography schemes in use today can theoretically be broken using Shor’s
- A 2-qubit superconducting chip, the first solid-state quantum processor, was developed at Yale in 2009.
- Researchers from Australia and Japan achieved a quantum teleportation breakthrough in 2011, successfully transmitting quantum data with 100% transmission integrity.
- D-Wave revealed the first commercial quantum annealer in 2011.
- Scientists from the University of Science and Technology of China claimed the first quantum teleportation from one macroscopic item to another in November 2012.
- Google announced the opening of the Quantum AI Lab in May 2013.
- Edward Snowden revealed in 2014 that the NSA is funding a $79.7 million research project called “Penetrating Hard Targets” in order to create a quantum computer that can defeat weak encryption.
- The world’s first fully functional quantum computer, D-Wave Systems, was made public by NASA in 2015.
- For the first time ever, IBM Research announced in May 2016 that it would make quantum computing accessible to the general public over the cloud.
- IBM unveiled IBM Q, a pioneering project to create widely accessible universal quantum computing devices, in March 2017.
- Scientists from IBM Research “broke the 49-qubit simulation barrier” in October 2017.
- IBM, Intel, and Google all claimed testing quantum processors with 50, 49, and 72 qubits in late 2017 and early 2018.
- Intel started testing a silicon-based spin-qubit CPU in June 2018.
- IonQ said in December 2018 that its machine may be constructed with up to 160 qubits.
- A significant step forward in the development of practical quantum computing was made when Google announced in October 2019 that it had achieved quantum supremacy.

### Applications of Quantum Computing

**Optimization**- Global minimal point solutions are sought for by many optimization issues. The optimization issues might be resolved faster using quantum annealing than with supercomputers.

**Machine Learning / Big data**- Researchers in machine learning and deep learning are looking for effective techniques to build and evaluate models using massive amounts of data. Training and testing can be accelerated with the use of quantum computing.

**Simulation**- To foresee potential mistakes and take appropriate measures, simulation is a beneficial tool. Complex systems can be simulated using quantum computing techniques.

**Material Science**- The computations of the intricate interactions of atomic structures place restrictions on chemistry and material science. A quicker method to represent these interactions may be found in quantum solutions.

Future quantum computing will have several uses that are sector specific.

- Cybersecurity
- Cryptography
- Weather Forecasting
- AI and Machine Learning
- Drug Design and Development
- Finance Marketing
- Computational Chemistry
- Logistics Optimization: Two methods are employed in quantum computing, and they are as follows:

- Quantum Annealing: It is a sophisticated optimization method that can outperform conventional computers.
- Universal Quantum Computers: It could resolve any kind of computational issue. However, it will take some years before a system of this kind can be bought on the open market. Hopefully, researchers are striving to improve the system.

### Quantum Computing Future Scope

More difficult issues are emerging.

The issues are becoming more complex as technology develops. Protein modelling is one of the complex issues that quantum computing can help with. The most recent worldwide disaster brought on by COVID-19 demonstrates the necessity for a new method for modelling and deactivating a single protein. Energy use is another instance of a difficult issue growing exponentially.

More difficult issues, such source optimization, are emerging as the human population grows and consumption grows exponentially. The physics of quantum mechanics can be applied to quantum computers in order to overcome the constraints of difficult issues.

**Supercomputers can only solve linear issues. **

For carrying out sequential tasks and storing data, traditional computing is a practical instrument. But because chaotic issues are represented on the basis of linear mathematics, they are challenging to solve.

Due to its inherent nonlinearity, quantum computing seems to be a good choice for solving nonlinear issues. However, not all types of processing can be performed on quantum computers.

Technology development has given rise to quantum computing and opened up a world of possibilities. It has emerged as the newest and one of the most cutting-edge trends in technology.

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